25 mw power plant can generate how much electricity

25 mw power plant can generate how much electricity Related Information

Alabama Power's Plant Miller How Electricity Is

13/3/2015· Southern Company Plant Miller coal fueled power plant animated tour. Produced by Effective Digital Presentations : edpvideo: 438K: 10 How much is 1 MW of power? | AnswersDrivehttps://answersdrive.com/how-much-is-1-mw-of-power-906666Megawatts are used to measure the output of a power plant or the amount of electricity required by an entire city. One megawatt (MW) = 1,000 kilowatts

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How much electricity does a solar panel produce?

The first step to figuring out how much electricity your solar panel can produce in a year is to find your place on the globe. Since solar panels only generate power as the sun shines, you'll need a way to store the energy. Though it's possible to use a battery

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How is Electricity Measured? | Union of Concerned Scientists

10/5/2019· how much electricity you have used. One kilowatt (kW) equals 1,000 watts, and one kilowatt (MW) = 1,000 kilowatts = 1,000,000 watts. For example, a typical coal plant is about 600 MW in size. Gigawatts measure the capacity of large power

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How to Compare Power Generation Choices - Renewable

People like to compare the cost to generate electricity from various renewable resources, like wind or solar, to the cost to generate electricity from coal, nuclear and natural gas. Comparing these costs is like comparing apples to oranges. Power generation is a

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How Much Power Does a Wind Turbine Generate? |

Wind turbines are capable of spinning their blades on hillsides, in the ocean, next to factories and above homes. How much energy they produce depends on wind speed, efficiency

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Reciprocating Engine Generator Technology - Power

The Fairmont Energy Station is a 25-MW project equipped with four Cat G16CM34 generator sets. The plant was commissioned in 2014. Photo courtesy: Caterpillar Inc.

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a power plant having three 25 mw identical generating

1 min ago a power plant having three 25 mw identical generating units having 0.1 f o r can meet 50 mw constant load with approximate lole 1 min ago introduction to boilers

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MWh - Megawatt Hour - Thousand Units of Electricity -

Depending on the region and its DNI ( a measure of amount of sunlight available), a 1 MW solar power plant can generate between 3-4.5 MWh of electricity a day, or 1100-1600 MWh of electricity a year.

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Energy Problems and Information - Willis' Science

(MW). Assuming that the power plant can operate at full capacity for 10,000 hrs/yr, how many kWh of electricity can be produced by the plant in one year? 2) A capacity of a nuclear power plant is 30 megawatts (MW).

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energy - What does a 200MW capacity power plant

So what does a 200MW capacity power plant mean? Does it mean it generates 200MJ of energy in one second. But then I have also read it can mean 200MW of p

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Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheets Series: Steam

generate power and thermal energy. Backpressure steam turbines produce low pressure steam while extraction turbines deliver both low son, a typical natural gas combined cycle power plant will have emissions of 800-900 lbs/MWh, and a coal plant will have

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NorthWestern Energy plans power generation expansion -

20/6/2003· Montana's largest electricity supplier aims to add 800 MW of power generation capacity between 2022 and 2025 HELENA, Mont. (AP) — NorthWestern Energy released a plan Tuesday to more than double how much power it can generate for Montana

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Output of a solar PV power plant - Suncyclopedia

Summary: A solar PV power plant generates between 3-5 kWh (units) per kW per day, depending on the solar radiation at the location. How much electricity can a solar power plant generate? What factors does this generation depend on? Output of a solar power

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How to Calculate the Coal Quantity Used in a Power Plant

The cost of coal consumed by 100 MW power plant is (53.8 x 65) 3497 $ /hr A 100 MW unit produces 100,000 units of electricity. So the cost of coal per unit of electricity is (3497/100,000) 3.5 cents per unit. Post navigation

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Biomass Conversion to Electricity

A 10 MW (megawatt) generator can supply electricity to about 10,000 homes. biomass available The 7 cogeneration facilities are co-located with sawmills

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how much electricity does a wind power plant generate? |

10/9/2006· how much electricity will a 1MW wind power plant generate when all it required conditions [ie:-the required speed of the wind, and all other factors] are fulfiled? Wind power Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity using wind turbines. In 2005, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 58,982 megawatts, their production making up less than 1% of world-wide electricity use. Although still a relatively minor source of electricity for most countries, it accounts for 23% of electricity use in Denmark, 4.3% in Germany and around 8% in Spain. Globally, wind power generation more than quadrupled between 1999 and 2005. Most modern wind power is generated in the form of electricity by converting the rotation of turbine blades into electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In windmills (a much older technology) wind energy is used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing grain or pumping water. Wind power is used in large scale wind farms for national electrical grids as well as in small individual turbines for providing electricity in isolated locations. Wind energy is abundant, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and mitigates the greenhouse effect if it is used to replace fossil-fuel-derived electricity. 1 Cost and growth 2 Wind energy 2.1 Wind variability and turbine power 2.2 Wind power density classes 3 Turbine siting 3.1 Onshore 3.2 Offshore 3.3 Airborne 3.4 Vertical axis turbines 4 Utilization 4.1 Large scale 4.2 Small scale 5 Debate for and against wind power 5.1 Arguments of supporters 5.1.1 Pollution 5.1.2 Long-term potential 5.1.3 Coping with intermittency 5.1.4 Ecology 5.1.5 Economic feasibility 5.1.6 Aesthetics 5.2 Arguments of opponents 5.2.1 Economics 5.2.2 Yield 5.2.3 CO2 Emissions 5.2.4 Ecological Footprint 5.2.5 Scalability 5.2.6 Aesthetics 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 8.1 Technical 8.2 Political 8.3 Wind power projects 8.4 Academic Institutions 9 External links 9.1 Manufacturers Cost and growth - The cost of wind-generated electric power has dropped substantially. Since 2004, according to some sources, the price in the United States is now lower than the cost of fuel-generated electric power, even without taking externalities into account.[1][2][3] In 2005, wind energy cost one-fifth as much as it did in the late 1990s, and that downward trend is expected to continue as larger multi-megawatt turbines are mass-produced.[4] A British Wind Energy Association report gives an average generation cost of onshore wind power of around 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour. [5] - Wind power is growing quickly, at about 38%,[6] up from 25% growth in 2002. In the United States, as of 2003, wind power was the fastest growing form of electricity generation on a percentage basis.[7] Wind energy Main article: Wind An estimated 1 to 3% of energy from the Sun that hits the earth is converted into wind energy. This is about 50 to 100 times more energy than is converted into biomass by all the plants on earth through photosynthesis. Most of this wind energy can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (100 mph) occur. Eventually, the wind energy is converted through friction into diffuse heat all through the earth's surface and atmosphere. The origin of wind is simple. The earth is unevenly heated by the sun resulting in the poles receiving less energy from the sun than the equator does. Also the dry land heats up (and cools down) more quickly than the seas do. The differential heating powers a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the earth's surface to the stratosphere which acts as a virtual ceiling. The change of seasons, change of day and night, the Coriolis effect, the irregular albedo (reflectivity) of land and water, humidity, and the friction of wind over different terrain are some of the factors which complicate the flow of wind over the surface. Wind variability and turbine power A Darrieus wind turbine.The power in the wind can be extracted by allowing it to blow past moving wings that exert torque on a rotor. The amount of power transferred is directly proportional to the density of the air, the area swept out by the rotor, and the cube of the wind speed. The mass flow of air that travels through the swept area of a wind turbine varies with the wind speed and air density. As an example, on a cool 15°C (59°F) day at sea level, air density is about 1.22 kilograms per cubic metre (it gets less dense with higher humidity). An 8 m/s breeze blowing through a 100 meter diameter rotor would move about 76,000 kilograms of air per second through the swept area. The kinetic energy of a given mass varies with the square of its velocity. Because the mass flow increases linearly with the wind speed, the wind energy available to a wind turbine increases as the cube of the wind speed. The power of the example breeze above through the example rotor would be about 2.5 megawatts. As the wind turbine extracts energy from the air flow, the air is slowed down, which causes it to spread out and diverts it around the wind turbine to some extent. Albert Betz, a German physicist, determined in 1919 that a wind turbine can extract at most 59% of the energy that would otherwise flow through the turbine's cross section. The Betz limit applies regardless of the design of the turbine. More recent work by Gorlov shows a theoretical limit of about 30% for propeller-type turbines.[8] Actual efficiencies range from 10% to 20% for propeller-type turbines, and are as high as 35% for three-dimensional vertical-axis turbines like Darrieus or Gorlov turbines. Distribution of wind speed (red) and energy (blue) for all of 2002 at the Lee Ranch facility in Colorado. The histogram shows measured data, while the curve is the Rayleigh model distribution for the same average wind speed. Energy is the Betz limit through a 100 meter diameter circle facing directly into the wind. Total energy for the year through that circle was 15.4 gigawatt-hours.Windiness varies, and an average value for a given location does not alone indicate the amount of energy a wind turbine could produce there. To assess the climatology of wind speeds at a particular location, a probability distribution function is often fit to the observed data. Different locations will have different wind speed distributions. The distribution model most frequently used to model wind speed climatology is a two-parameter Weibull distribution because it is able to conform to a wide variety of distribution shapes, from gaussian to exponential. The Rayleigh model, an example of which is shown plotted against an actual measured dataset, is a specific form of the Weibull function in which the shape parameter equals 2, and very closely mirrors the actual distribution of hourly wind speeds at many locations. Because so much power is generated by higher windspeed, much of the average power available to a windmill comes in short bursts. The 2002 Lee Ranch sample is telling: half of the energy available arrived in just 15% of the operating time. The consequence of this is that wind energy is not dispatchable as for fuel-fired power plants; additional output cannot be supplied in response to load demand. - - Since wind speed is not constant, a wind generator's annual energy production is never as much as its nameplate rating multiplied by the total hours in a year. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor. A well-sited wind generator will have a capacity factor of as much as 35%. This compares to typical capacity factors of 90% for nuclear plants, 70% for coal plants, and 30% for oil plants.[9] When comparing the size of wind turbine plants to fueled power plants, it is important to note that 1000 kW of wind-turbine potential power would be expected to produce as much energy in a year as approximately 500 kW of coal-fired generation. Though the short-term (hours or days) output of a wind-plant is not completely predictable, the annual output of energy tends to vary only a few percent points between years. - - When storage, such as with pumped hydroelectric storage, or other forms of generation are used to "shape" wind power (by assuring constant delivery reliability), commercial delivery represents a cost increase of about 25%, yielding viable commercial performance.[1] Electricity consumption can be adapted to production variability to some extent with Energy Demand Management and smart meters that offer variable market pricing over the course of the day. For example, municipal water pumps that feed a water tower do not need to operate continuously and can be restricted to times when electricity is plentiful and cheap. Consumers could choose when to run the dishwasher or charge an electric vehicle. Wind power density classes Turbine siting Map of available wind power over the United States. Color codes indicate wind power density class.As a general rule, wind generators are practical where the average wind speed is 10 mph or greater. Obviously, meteorology plays an important part in determining possible locations for wind parks, though it has great accuracy limitations. Meteorological wind data is not usually sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project. An 'ideal' location would have a near constant flow of non-turbulent wind throughout the year and would not suffer too many sudden powerful bursts of wind. The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag of the surface (sea or land) and the reduced viscosity of the air. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, and upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings. Typically, the increase of wind speeds with increasing height follows a logarithmic profile that can be reasonably approximated by the wind profile power law, using an exponent of 1/7th, which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%.[citation needed] Wind farms or wind parks often have many turbines installed. Since each turbine extracts some of the energy of the wind, it is important to provide adequate spacing between turbines to avoid excess energy loss. Where land area is sufficient, turbines are spaced three to five rotor diameters apart perpendicular to the prevailing wind, and five to ten rotor diameters apart in the direction of the prevailing wind, to minimize efficiency loss. The "wind park effect" loss can be as low as 2% of the combined nameplate rating of the turbines. Utility-scale wind turbine generators have minimum temperature operating limits which restrict the application in areas that routinely experience temperatures less than −20°C. Wind turbines must be protected from ice accumulation, which can make anemometer readings inaccurate and which can cause high structure loads and damage. Some turbine manufacturers offer low-temperature packages at a few percent extra cost, which include internal heaters, different lubricants, and different alloys for structural elements, to make it possible to operate the turbines at lower temperatures. If the low-temperature interval is combined with a low-wind condition, the wind turbine will require station service power, equivalent to a few percent of its output rating, to maintain internal temperatures during the cold snap. For example, the St. Leon, Manitoba project has a total rating of 99 MW and is estimated to need up to 3 MW (around 3% of capacity) of station service power a few days a year for temperatures down to −30°C. This factor affects the economics of wind turbine operation in cold climates.[citation needed] Onshore Wind turbines near Walla Walla in WashingtonOnshore turbine installations tend to be along mountain ridges or passes, or at the top of cliff faces. The change in ground elevation causes the wind velocities to be generally higher in these areas, although there may be variation over short distances (a difference of 30 m can sometimes mean a doubling in output). Local winds are often monitored for a year or more with anemometers and detailed wind maps constructed before wind generators are installed. For smaller installations where such data collection is too expensive or time consuming, the normal way of prospecting for wind-power sites is to directly look for trees or vegetation that are permanently "cast" or deformed by the prevailing winds. Another way is to use a wind-speed survey map, or historical data from a nearby meteorological station, although these methods are less reliable. Sea shores also tend to be windy areas and good sites for turbine installation, because a primary source of wind is convection from the differential heating and cooling of land and sea over the course of day and night. Winds at sea level carry somewhat more energy than winds of the same speed in mountainous areas because the air at sea level is more dense. Wind farm siting can sometimes be highly controversial, particularly as the hilltop, often coastal sites preferred are often picturesque and environmentally sensitive (for instance, having substantial bird life). Local residents in a number of potential sites have strongly opposed the installation of wind farms, and political support has resulted in the blocking of construction of some installations [10]. Offshore Wind blows briskly and smoothly over water since there are no obstructions. The large and slow turning turbines of this offshore wind farm near Copenhagen take advantage of the moderate yet constant breezes here.Offshore wind turbines cause less aesthetic controversy since they often cannot be seen from the shore. Because there are fewer obstacles and stronger winds, such turbines also don´t need to be built as high into the air. However, offshore turbines are more inaccessible and offshore conditions are harsh, abrasive, and corrosive, thereby increasing the costs of operation and maintenance compared to onshore turbines. In areas with extended shallow continental shelves and sand banks (such as Denmark), turbines are reasonably easy to install, and give good service. At the site shown, the wind is not especially strong but is very consistent. The largest offshore wind turbines in the world are seven 3.6 MW rated machines off the east coast of Ireland about sixty kilometres south of Dublin. The turbines are located on a sandbank approximately ten kilometres from the coast that has the potential for the installation of 500 MW of generation capacity. As of 2006, the largest offshore wind farm is the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand, located about ten kilometres south of Nysted and thirteen kilometres west of Gedser Denmark. The wind farm consists of seventy two turbines of 2.3 MW, which produces 165.6 MW of power at rated wind speed.[11]. Three offshore wind farms in the United Kingdom are currently operating, North Hoyle (30 x 2 MW), Scroby Sand (30 x 2 MW) and Kentish flat (30 x 3 MW). Another offshore wind farm, Barrow (30 x 3 MW), is under construction. Under the energy policy of the United Kingdom further offshore facilities are feasible and expected by the year 2010. Not all offshore wind farms have been without siting controversies, such as the proposed Cape Wind offshore development in the United States. Airborne Main article: Airborne wind turbine Wind turbines might also be flown in high speed winds at altitude[12], although no such systems currently exist in the marketplace. An Ontario company, Magenn Power, Inc., is attempting to commercialize tethered aerial turbines suspended with helium[13] Vertical axis turbines A prototype of vertical axis wind turbine is the italian project called "Kitegen". It is an innovative plan (still in phase of construction) that consists in one wind farm with a vertical spin axis, and employs kites to exploit high-altitude winds. The Kite Wind Generator (KWG) or KiteGen is claimed to eliminate all the static and dynamic problems that prevent the increase of the power (in terms of dimensions) obtainable from the traditional horizontal axis wind turbine generators. According to its developers, a one GigaWatt installation will be 1/40 the cost of the corresponding nuclear powerplant. The project kitegen has received 15 million euro financing from the Italian state. It will begun with a 1 MW prototype and then with the planning of a power kitegen of 20 MW. [citation needed] Utilization Large scale Total installed windpower capacity (end of year & latest estimates)[14] Capacity (MW) Rank Nation Latest 2005 2004 1 Germany 18,428 16,629 2 Spain 10,941 10,027 8,263 3 USA 10,000 9,149 6,725 4 India 5,340 4,430 3,000 5 Denmark 3,128 3,124 6 Italy 1,717 1,265 7 United Kingdom 1,936.65 1,353 888 8 China 1,260 764 9 Netherlands 1,219 1,078 10 Japan 1,040 896 11 Portugal 1,022 522 12 Austria 819 606 13 France 918 757 386 14 Canada 1,049 683 444 15 Greece 573 473 16 Australia 738 572 379 17 Sweden 510 452 18 Ireland 496 339 19 Norway 270 270 20 New Zealand 168 168 21 Belgium 167 95 22 Egypt 145 145 23 South Korea 119 23 24 Taiwan 103 13 25 Finland 82 82 26 Poland 73 63 27 Ukraine 73 69 28 Costa Rica 70 70 29 Morocco 64 54 30 Luxembourg 35 35 31 Iran 32 25 32 Estonia 30 3 33 Philippines 29 29 34 Brazil 79 29 24 35 Czech Republic 28 17 World total ~63,000 58,982 47,671 There are many thousands of wind turbines operating, with a total capacity of 58,982 MW of which Europe accounts for 69% (2005). One megawatt of power provides for about 160 average American households. Wind power was the most rapidly-growing means of alternative electricity generation at the turn of the century and provides a valuable complement to large-scale base-load power stations. World wind generation capacity more than quadrupled between 1999 and 2005. 90% of wind power installations are in the US and Europe, but the share of the top five countries in terms of new installations fell from 71% in 2004 to 55% in 2005. By 2010, World Wind Energy Association expects 120,000 MW to be installed worldwide.[14] Germany, Spain, the United States, India and Denmark have made the largest investments in wind generated electricity. Denmark is prominent in the manufacturing and use of wind turbines, with a commitment made in the 1970s to eventually produce half of the country's power by wind. Denmark generates over 20% of its electricity with wind turbines, the highest percentage of any country and is fifth in the world in total power generation (which can be compared with the fact that Denmark is 56th on the general electricity comsumption list). Denmark and Germany are leading exporters of large (0.66 to 5 MW) turbines. Wind accounts for 1% of the total electricity production on a global scale (2005). Germany is the leading producer of wind power with 32% of the total world capacity in 2005 (6% of German electricity); the official target is that by 2010, renewable energy will meet 12.5% of German electricity needs - it can be expected that this target will be reached even earlier. Germany has 16,000 wind turbines, mostly in the north of the country - including three of the biggest in the world, constructed by the companies Enercon (4.5 MW), Multibrid (5 MW) and Repower (5 MW). Germany's Schleswig-Holstein province generates 25% of its power with wind turbines. Spain and the United States are next in terms of installed capacity. In 2005, the government of Spain approved a new national goal for installed wind power capacity of 20,000 MW by 2012. According to the American Wind Energy Association, wind generated enough electricity to power 0.4% (1.6 million households) of total electricity in US, up from less than 0.1% in 1999. In 2005, both Germany and Spain have produced more electricity from wind power than from hydropower plants. US Department of Energy studies have concluded wind harvested in just three of the fifty U.S. states could provide enough electricity to power the entire nation, and that offshore wind farms could do the same job.[1] Wind power could grow by 50% in the U.S. in 2006.[15] India ranks 4th in the world with a total wind power capacity of 5,340 MW. Wind power generates 3% of all electricity produced in India. The World Wind Energy Conference in New Delhi in November 2006 will give additional impetus to the Indian wind industry.[14] In December 2003, General Electric installed the world's largest offshore wind turbines in Ireland, and plans are being made for more such installations on the west coast, including the possible use of floating turbines. On August 15, 2005, China announced it would build a 1000-megawatt wind farm in Hebei for completion in 2020. China reportedly has set a generating target of 20,000 MW by 2020 from renewable energy sources - it says indigenous wind power could generate up to 253,000 MW. Following the World Wind Energy Conference in November 2004, organised by the Chinese and the World Wind Energy Association, a Chinese renewable energy law was adopted. In late 2005, the Chinese government increased the official wind energy target for the year 2020 from 20 GW to 30 GW.[citation needed] Another growing market is Brazil, with a wind potential of 143 GW.[16] The federal government has created an incentive program, called Proinfa,[17] to build production capacity of 3300 MW of renewable energy for 2008, of which 1422 MW through wind energy. The program seeks to produce 10% of Brazilian electricity through renewable sources. Brazil produced 320 TWh in 2004. France recently annonced a very ambiious target of 12 500 MW installed by 2010. Over the 6 years from 2000-2005, Canada experienced rapid growth of wind capacity - moving from a total installed capacity of 137 MW to 943 MW, and showing a growth rate of 38% and rising.[18] This growth was fed by provincial measures, including installation targets, economic incentives and political support. For example, the government of the Canadian province of Ontario announced on 21 March 2006 that it will introduce a feed-in tariff for wind power, referred to as 'Standard Offer Contracts', which may boost the wind industry across the entire country.[19] In the Canadian province of Quebec, the state-owned hydroelectric utility plans to generate 2000 MW from wind farms by 2013.[20] Small scale Main article: Small wind turbine This rooftop-mounted urban wind turbine charges a 12 volt battery and runs various 12 volt appliances within the building on which it is installed.Wind turbines have been used for household electricity generation in conjunction with battery storage over many decades in remote areas. Household generator units of more than 1 kW are now functioning in several countries. To compensate for the varying power output, grid-connected wind turbines may utilise some sort of grid energy storage. Off-grid systems either adapt to intermittent power or use photovoltaic or diesel systems to supplement the wind turbine. Wind turbines range from small four hundred watt generators for residential use to several megawatt machines for wind farms and offshore. The small ones have direct drive generators, direct current output, aeroelastic blades, lifetime bearings and use a vane to point into the wind; while the larger ones generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. Direct drive generators and aeroelastic blades for large wind turbines are being researched and direct current generators are sometimes used. In urban locations, where it is difficult to obtain large amounts of wind energy, smaller systems may still be used to run low power equipment. Distributed power from rooftop mounted wind turbines can also alleviate power distribution problems, as well as provide resilience to power failures. Equipment such as parking meters or wireless internet gateways may be powered by a wind turbine that charges a small battery, replacing the need for a connection to the power grid and/or maintaining service despite possible power grid failures. Small-scale wind power in rural Indiana.Small scale turbines are available that are approximately 7 feet (2 m) in diameter and produce 900 watts. Units are lightweight, e.g. 16 kilograms (35 lbs), allowing rapid response to wind gusts typical of urban settings and easy mounting much like a television antenna. It is claimed that they are inaudible even a few feet under the turbine.[citation needed] Dynamic braking regulates the speed by dumping excess energy, so that the turbine continues to produce electricity even in high winds. The dynamic braking resistor may be installed inside the building to provide heat (during high winds when more heat is lost by the building, while more heat is also produced by the braking resistor). The proximal location makes low voltage (12 volt, or the like) energy distribution practical. An additional benefit is that owners become more aware of electricity consumption, possibly reducing their consumption down to the average level that the turbine can produce. According to the World Wind Energy Association, it is difficult to assess the total number or capacity of small-scaled wind turbines, but in China alone, there are roughly 300,000 small-scale wind turbines generating electricity.[14] Debate for and against wind power Arguments for and against wind power are listed below. Arguments of supporters Erection of an Enercon E70-4Supporters of wind energy state that:Pollution Wind power is a renewable resource, which means using it will not deplete the earth's supply of fossil fuels. It also is a clean energy source, and operation does not produce carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, mercury, particulates, or any other type of air pollution, as do conventional fossil fuel power sources. During manufacture of the wind turbine, however, steel, concrete, aluminium and other materials will have to be made and transported using energy-intensive processes, generally using fossil energy sources. Nevertheless, the energy used for manufacture of a wind turbine is earned back in four to six months of operation. Long-term potential Wind's long-term theoretical potential is much greater than current world energy consumption. The most comprehensive study to date[21] found the potential of wind power on land and near-shore to be 72 TW (~54,000 Mtoe), or over five times the world's current energy use and 40 times the current electricity use. The potential takes into account only locations with Class 3 (mean annual wind speeds ≥ 6.9 m/s at 80 m) or better wind regimes, which includes the locations suitable for low-cost (0.03–0.04 $/kWh) wind power generation and is in that sense conservative. It assumes 6 turbines per square km for 77-m diameter, 1,5 MW turbines on roughly 13% of the total land area. This potential assumes a capacity factor of 48% and does not take into account the practicality of reaching the windy sites or of transmission (including 'choke' points) or of competing land uses or of wheeling power over large distances or of switching to wind power. To determine the more realistic technical potential it is essential how large a fraction of this land could be made available to wind power. In the 2001 IPCC report, it is assumed that a use of 4% - 10% of that land area would be practial. Even so, the potential comfortably exceeds current world electricity demand. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute about seven times more energy than land.[22][23] This number could also increase with higher altitude or airborne wind turbines.[24] Coping with intermittency As the fraction of energy produced by wind ("penetration") increases, different technical and economic factors affect the need, if there is one, for grid energy storage facilities. Large networks, connected to multiple wind plants at widely separated geographic locations, may accept a higher penetration of wind than small networks or those without storage systems or economical methods of compensating for the variability of wind. In systems with significant amounts of existing pumped storage (e.g. UK, eastern US) this proportion may be higher. Isolated, relatively small systems with only a few wind plants may only be stable and economic with a lower fraction of wind energy (e.g. Ireland). On most large power systems a moderate proportion of wind generation can be connected without the need for storage. For larger proportions, storage may be economically attractive or even technically necessary. Long-term storage of electrical energy involves substantial capital costs, space for storage facilities, and some portion of the stored power will be lost during conversion and transmission. The percentage retrievable from stored power is called the "efficiency of storage." The cost incurred to "shape" intermittent wind power for reliable delivery is about a 20% premium for most wind applications on large grids, but approaches 50% of the cost of generation when wind comprises more than 70% of the local grid's input power. See: Grid energy storage Cement works in New South Wales, Australia. Energy-intensive process like this could utilize burst electricity from wind.Electricity demand is variable but generally very predictable on larger grids; errors in demand forecasting are typically no more than 2%. Because conventional powerplants can drop off the grid within a few seconds, for example due to equipment failures, in most systems the output of some coal or gas powerplants is intentionally part-loaded to follow demand and to replace rapidly lost generation. The ability to follow demand (by maintaining constant frequency) is termed "response." The ability to quickly replace lost generation, typically within timescales of 30 seconds to 30 minutes, is termed "spinning reserve." Nuclear power plants in contrast are not very flexible and are not intentionally part-loaded. A power plant that operates in a steady fashion, usually for many days continuously, is termed a "base load" plant. Generally thermal plants running as "peaking" plants will be less efficient than if they were running as base load. What happens in practice therefore is that as the power output from wind varies, part-loaded conventional plants, which must be there anyway to provide response (due to continuously changing demand) and reserve, adjust their output to compensate; they do this in response to small changes in the frequency (nominally 50 or 60 Hz) of the grid. In this sense wind acts like "negative" load or demand. The maximum proportion of wind power allowable in a power system will thus depend on many factors, including the size of the system, the attainable geographical diversity of wind, the conventional plant mix (coal, gas, nuclear) and seasonal load factors (heating in winter, air-conditioning in summer) and their statistical correlation with wind output. For most large systems the allowable penetration fraction (wind nameplate rating divided by system peak demand) is thus at least 15% without the need for any energy storage whatsoever. Note that the interconnected electrical system may be much larger than the particular country or state (e.g. Denmark, California) being considered. It should also be borne in mind that wind output, especially from large numbers of turbines/farms can be predicted with a fair degree of confidence many hours ahead using weather forecasts. The allowable penetration may of course be further increased by increasing the amount of part-loaded generation available, or by using energy storage facilities, although if purpose-built for wind energy these may significantly increase the overall cost of wind power. Existing European hydroelectric power plants can store enough energy to supply one month's worth of European electricity consumption. Improvement of the international grid would allow using this in the relatively short term at low cost, as a matching variable complementary source to wind power. Excess wind power could even be used to pump water up into collection basins for later use. Energy Demand Management or Demand-Side Management refers to the use of communication and switching devices which can release deferrable loads quickly to correct supply/demand imbalances. Incentives can be created for the use of these systems, such as favorable rates or capital cost assistance, encouraging consumers with large loads to take advantage of renewable energy by adjusting their loads to coincide with resource availability. For example, pumping water to pressurize municipal water systems is an electricity intensive application that can be performed when electricity is available.[25] Real-time variable electricity pricing can encourage all users to reduce usage when the renewable sources happen to be at low production. In energy schemes with a high penetration of wind energy, secondary loads, such as desalination plants and electric boilers may be encouraged because their output (water and heat) can be stored. The utilization of "burst electricity", where excess electricity is used on windy days for opportunistic purposes greatly improves the economic efficiency of wind turbine schemes. An ice storage device has been invented which allows cooling energy to be consumed during resource availability, and dispatched as air conditioning during peak hours. Multiple wind farms spread over a wide geographic area and gridded together produce power much more constantly. Electricity produced from solar energy could be a counter balance to the fluctuating supplies generated from wind. It tends to be windier at night and during cloudy or stormy weather, so there is likely to be more sunshine when there is less wind. Ecology Because it uses energy already present in the atmosphere, and can displace fossil-fuel generated electricity (with its accompanying carbon dioxide emissions), wind power mitigates global warming. If the entire world's nameplate electrical demand expected in 2010 were served from wind power alone, the amount of energy extracted from the atmosphere would be less than the increase added by radiative forcing by additional carbon dioxide at 2000 levels above those of the year 1500, before fossil fuel consumption became significant.[citation needed] Energy payback ratio (ratio of energy produced compared to energy expended in construction and operation) for wind turbines has been estimated in one report to be between 17 and 39 (i.e. over its life-time a wind turbine produces 17-39 times as much energy as is needed for its manufacture, construction, operation and decomissioning). A similar Danish study determined the payback ratio to be 80, which means that a wind turbine system pays back the energy invested within approximately 3 months. [26] This is to be compared with payback ratios of 11 for coal power plants and 16 for nuclear power plants, though such figures do not take into account the energy content of the fuel itself, which would lead to a negative energy 'payback'.[27] Unlike fossil or nuclear power stations, which circulate large amounts of water for cooling, wind turbines do not need water to generate electricity. Studies show that the number of birds killed by wind turbines is negligible compared to the amount that die as a result of other human activities such as traffic, hunting, power lines and high-rise buildings and especially the environmental impacts of using non-clean power sources. For example, in the UK, where there are a few hundred turbines, about one bird is killed per turbine per year; 10 million per year are killed by cars alone.[28] In the United States, turbines kill 70,000 birds per year, compared to 57 million killed by cars and 97.5 million killed by collisions with plate glass.[29] Another study suggests that migrating birds adapt to obstacles; those birds which don't modify their route and continue to fly through a wind farm are capable of avoiding the newer, larger, slower turning windmills,[30] at least in the low-wind non-twilight conditions studied. In the UK, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) concluded that "The available evidence suggests that appropriately positioned wind farms do not pose a significant hazard for birds."[31] It notes that climate change poses a much more significant threat to wildlife, and therefore supports wind farms and other forms of renewable energy. Clearing of wooded areas is often unnecessary, as the practice of farmers leasing their land out to companies building wind farms is common. Farmers receive annual lease payments of two thousand to five thousand dollars per turbine.[32] The land can still be used for farming and cattle grazing. The ecological and environmental costs of wind plants are paid by those using the power produced, with no long-term effects on climate or local environment left for future generations. Less than 1% of the land would be used for foundations and access roads, the other 99% could still be used for farming.[33] Turbines can be sited on land unused in techniques such as center-pivot irrigation. After decommissioning wind turbines, even the foundations are removed. Economic feasibility Conventional and nuclear power plants receive massive amounts of direct and indirect governmental subsidies. If a comparison is made on real production costs, wind energy is competitive in many cases. If the full costs (environmental, health, etc.) are taken into account, wind energy is competitive in most cases. Furthermore, wind energy costs are continuously decreasing due to technology development and scale enlargement. Nuclear power plants receive special immunity from the disasters they may cause, which prevents victims from recovering the cost of their continued health care from those responsible, even in the case of criminal malfeasance. Conventional and nuclear plants also have sudden unpredictable outages (see above). Statistical analysis shows that 1000 MW of wind power can replace 300 MW of conventional power. Aesthetics Wind power is nothing new. Windmills at La Mancha, Spain.Improvements in blade design and gearing have quietened modern turbines to the point where a normal conversation can be held underneath one Newer wind farms have more widely spaced turbines due to the greater power of the individual wind turbines, and so look less cluttered Wind turbines can be positioned alongside motorways, significantly reducing aesthetic concerns The aesthetics of wind turbines have been compared favourably to those of pylons from conventional power stations Areas under windfarms can be used for farming, and are protected from development Offshore sites have on average a higher energy yield than onshore sites, and often cannot be seen from the shore. [edit] Arguments of opponents Some of the over 4000 wind turbines at Altamont Pass, in California. Developed during a period of tax incentives in the 1980s, this wind farm has more turbines than any other in the United States. These turbines are only a few tens of kilowatts each. They cost several times more per kWh and spin much more quickly than modern megawatt turbines, endangering birds and making noise.[edit] Economics To compete with traditional sources of energy, wind power often receives financial incentives. In the United States, wind power receives a tax credit of 1.9 cents per kilowatt-hour produced, with a yearly inflationary adjustment. However, in 2004 when the U.S. production tax credit had lapsed for nine months, wind power was still a rapidly growing form of electrical generation, calling into question the value of these production tax credits. Another tax benefit is accelerated depreciation. Many American states also provide incentives, such as exemption from property tax, mandated purchases, and additional markets for "green credits." Countries such as Canada and Germany also provide tax credits and other incentives for wind turbine construction. Many potential sites for wind farms are far from demand centers, requiring substantially more money to construct new transmission lines and substations. [edit] Yield The goals of renewable energy development are reduction of reliance on fossil and nuclear fuels, reduction of greenhouse gas and other emissions, and establishment of more sustainable sources of energy. Some critics question wind energy's ability to significantly move society towards these goals. They point out that 25-30% annual load factor is typical for wind facilities. The intermittent and non-dispatchable nature of wind turbine power requires that "spinning reserves" are kept burning for supply security. The fluctuation in wind power requires more frequent load ramping of such plants to maintain grid system frequency. This can force operators to run conventional plants below optimal thermal efficiency resulting in greater emissions. A recent European Nuclear Society study estimates that the equivalent of one third of energy saved from wind generation is lost to these inefficiencies.[citation needed] [edit] CO2 Emissions Electric power production is only part (about 39% in the USA[34]) of a country's energy use, so wind power alone does little to mitigate the larger part of the effects of energy use (except with a potential transition to electric or hydrogen vehicles). For example, despite more than doubling the installed wind power capacity in the U.K. from 2002 to 2004, wind power contributed less than 1% of the national electricity supply,[5] and that country's CO2 emissions continued to rise in 2002 and 2003 (Department of Trade and Industry). Six of the U.K.'s nuclear reactors were closed in this period.[35] Groups such as the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change state that the desired mitigation goals can be achieved at lower cost and to a greater degree by continued improvements in general efficiency — in building, manufacturing, and transport — than by wind power.[citation needed] Such statements, however, do not take into account long-term costs and calculations, like drastically increasing prices for oil, gas, uranium etc. Also once an investment in a wind turbine is made, the electricity produced by that turbine is fixed for a period of 20 years. Ecological Footprint The clearing of trees may be necessary since obstructions reduce yield, though this is obviously not the case with most already-cleared farmland sites. Wind turbines should ideally be placed about ten times their diameter apart in the direction of prevailing winds and five times their diameter apart in the perpendicular direction for minimal losses due to wind park effects. As a result, wind turbines require roughly 0.1 square kilometres of unobstructed land per megawatt of nameplate capacity. A wind farm that produces the energy equivalent of a conventional power plant might have turbines spread out over an area of approximately 200 square kilometres. A nuclear plant of comparable capacity would be surrounded of a 100 square kilometre exclusion zone, and strip mines supplying coal power plants claim large tracts of land. Though restrictions in land use possibilities are different in the three cases, the area needed for wind farming is not excessive compared to conventional power.[36] A wind turbine at Greenpark, Reading, EnglandWindmills kill birds, especially birds of prey. Siting generally takes into account known bird flight patterns, but most paths of bird migration, particularly for birds that fly by night, are unknown. Although a Danish survey in 2005 (Biology Letters 2005:336) showed that less than 1% of migrating birds passing a wind farm in Rønde, Denmark, got close to collision, the site was studied only during low-wind non-twilight conditions. A survey at Altamont Pass, California conducted by a California Energy Commission in 2004 showed that turbines killed 4,700 birds annually (1,300 of which are birds of prey). Radar studies of proposed sites in the eastern U.S. have shown that migrating songbirds fly well within the reach of large modern turbines. Many more birds are killed by cars, and this is a widely accepted cost {POV}. A wind farm in Norway's Smøla islands is reported to have destroyed a colony of sea eagles according to the British Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.[37] The society said turbine blades killed nine of the birds in a 10 month period, including all three of the chicks that fledged that year. Norway is regarded as the most important place for white-tailed eagles. In 1989, Smøla was designated as having one of the highest densities of white-tailed eagles in the world. But the society now fears the 100 or so more wind farms planned in the rest of Norway could have a similar impact. "Smøla is demonstrating the damage that can be caused by a wind farm in the wrong location. The RSPB strongly supports renewable energies including wind, but the deaths of adult birds and the three young born last year make the prospects for white-tailed eagles on the island look bleak," said Dr. Rowan Langston, senior research biologist at the RSPB. The numbers of bats killed by existing facilities has troubled even industry personnel.[38] A six-week study in 2004 estimated that over 2200 bats were killed by 63 turbines at two sites in the Eastern US.[39] This study suggests some site locations may be particularly hazardous to local bat populations, and that more research is urgently needed. Migratory bat species appear to be particularly at risk, especially during key movement periods (spring and more importantly in fall). Lasiurines such as the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and red bat (Lasiurus borealis) along with semi-migratory silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) appear to be most vulnerable at North American sites. Almost nothing is known about current populations of these species and the impact on bat numbers as a result of mortality at windpower locations. Scalability To meet the energy demands worldwide in the future in a sustainable way, a much larger number of turbines than we have today will be required. Naturally this will affect more people and wildlife habitat. In Denmark, wind power now accounts for close to 20% of electricity consumption [40] and a recent poll of Danes show that 90% want more wind power installed [41]. Danish wind power is dependent on the import and export of electricity to Germany, Sweden, and Norway at short notice when wind generated power is less than or greater than current demand, respectively. Denmark has access to dispatchable Norwegian hydroelectric power and is leading the development of wind prediction science and technology. [42] [43] [44] Aesthetics Perceptions that wind turbines are noisy and contribute to "visual pollution" creates resistance to the establishment of land-based wind farms in some places. Moving the turbines offshore mitigates the problem, but offshore wind farms are more expensive to maintain and there is an increase in transmission loss due to longer distances of power lines. One solution to such objections is the early and close involvement of the local population, as recommended in the sustainability guidelines of the World Wind Energy Association[14] - in the ideal case through community/citizen ownership of wind farms. Some residents near windmills complain of "shadow flicker," which is the alternating pattern of sun and shade caused by a rotating windmill casting a shadow over residences. Efforts are made when siting turbines to avoid this problem. · 1First question is can you get fuel like coal or gas? If something like that is possible you might want to look into either trying to build or buy a small gas generator or a steam piston that you could then use to generate electricity. Otherwise water, wind or solar is your best bet. Solar probably won't work to well unless you can afford to buy panels, making them isn't really an option. Look into wind, but hydro power especially wouldn't be that hard.0The electricity generated by wind farms is much more expensive than conventional forms of energy production. For example in Denmark electricity prices are 13p a unit, compared with 7-8p in Britain (one reason for the Danish Government in 2002 to halt its program of building wind farms). Modern winds turbines tend to operate at around 25% of their total capacity, meaning wind farms often need to be backed up by more reliable and responsive power sources, such as coal or oil fueled stations, which run in standby mode ready to switch on when wind levels become too strong or too weak. As such, energy consumers have to pay for the cost of the back-up generators as well as the cost of installing and maintaining the wind turbines. On top of this if the standby generators are running on fossil fuels the CO2 savings made by wind farms are substantially, if not completely, diminished. It is for these reasons that wind farms can only operate through government subsidies or grants. A study by the University of St Andrews found that support for wind farms was higher among those living near existing sites, than among those living near proposed sites. The study also found that, in the case of the Dun Law Wind Farm in the Scottish Borders, that support for the farm was lowest among residents living 10-20 km away, with support being higher closer to the farm. Wind farms have been opposed by those who feel that they spoil the landscape. Others, whether interested in renewable energy or not, have argued that the windmills are elegant and beautiful. The issue has split "nature lovers," who argue in turn that support or that opposition to wind farms is not doing the environment any favours.1You already answered your question, the answer is 1MW of energy. Watts is a measurement of power, which is also a measurement of work. To find the current being generated will depend on the voltage the wind generator is rated for. To find current simply use this formula I=P/V, where I=current (amps), P= Watts, and V=Voltage.0Probably 120 volts AC. There is no simple answer to this. Its is a moot point anyways, without the current levels.Or the loading of the grid(or how much current it will draw). You will be supplying . Assuming 120volts AC(potential). Power= Current * Voltage Current=Power/Voltage Current=1,000,000W/120V Current=8333.0 Amperes(amps) They don't transmit this much current over the hydro lines they transmit voltage to minimize the resitive losses.0Efficiency of powerplant=plant capacity / power generated. Since you haven't mention the efficiency, you can calculate yourself by using the formula, power generated=1 MW / plant efficiency.0It depends on the efficiency of all the connections. If you start at the generator it is 1MW, but in converting to AC you lose a certain percentage maybe 5% and is you want to store it, you lose in reconverting it to DC and then back to AC, and you lose in transmission maybe 10%, all the way down the line to actual usage.0You gave the answer your self !! It delivers one mega watt,Ie. 1000 kilo watts into a resistive load. if your load is reactive, like motor etc need to calculate taking power factor into consideration. Vx I cos theta0How much KWH a 12 MW power plant produce in 24 hours?https:// Power Electricity Plant capacity depends on the design of the equipment used. Thus there are small hydro plants, like homeowner units for remote wilderness cabins, and megapower generators like the Niagara Falls power plants on both sides of the

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